Microbial lycopene production has started from various microbial strain including Blakeslea trispora , E. Due to food safety issues, use B. Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be used as industrial organism and it is generally recognized as safe GRAS for robust and preferred use with its enhanced lycopene yield It has shown that combinatorial engineering in S. CrtI from Blakeslea trispora BtCrtI has shown excellent performance on lycopene production and also lycopene proportion in carotenoid Expression level of BtCrt I has been fine-tuned for evaluation of effect of cell mating types.
Distant genetic targets YJL W encodes functional protein , ROX 1 encodes putative regulator protein of hypoxic, and DOS 2 control of single-copy DNA replication deletion with up-regulation of stress-responsive transcription factor INO2 for formation of a complex with the INO1 promoter have been done for modification of carotenogenic pathway and resulted with enhanced lycopene yield about fold from 2. Further fed-batch fermentation has helped the lycopene production yield of Lycopene is one of member of carotenoid family and used as an efficient antioxidant and singlet oxygen quencher and itsdemand has been increased in the nutraceutical and drug industry.
And researchers are putting more efforts to synthesize the effective microbial strain and methods for production of lycopene in cost effective manner at large scale for fulfilling the growing demand. Thermal processing has helped in liberation this carotenoid from complexes with proteins via increasing its bioaccessibilty In natural process, lycopene content is obtained from fruit peels of guava, papaya, watermelon and red dragon fruit as best sources.
UV—vis spectrophotometer has helped in measuring of lycopene content whereas identification of lycopene has done by using high performance liquid chromatography HPLC. Response surface methodology RSM using faced centered composite design FCCCD has applied to study the interaction among temperature, time and solid-solvent ratio for maximum lycopene yield In chemical synthesis, the lycopene oleoresin has been saponified using a mixture of propylene glycol and aqueous alkali for getting lycopene crystals fit for human consumption.
High Performance Liquid Chromatography has helped in identification of constituents of the total lycopene oleoresin after saponification with lycopene The dehydrated papaya peels has been also utilized for the extraction of lycopene which is standardized for the maximum recovery of the pigment by using response surface methodology with use of three independent variables and their levels based on Face Central Composite Design. Lycopene content in papaya peels has reported to varied between This bacterium is gone for desaturation of phytoene via enzyme phytoene desaturase CrtI catalysis for leading to neurosporene Later lycopene is produced via involving only three dehydrogenation steps and not four.
Chromosomal insertions of akanamycin resistance cassette into the crtC and crtD region of the partial carotenoid gene cluster are responsible for the downstream processing of lycopene as the major carotenoid. Spectroscopic and biochemical evidence in vivo has shown the lycopene incorporation into the light-harvesting complex1 44 , Introduction up to 40 consecutive copies of heterologous carotenoid biosynthesis pathway genes into the E. Phytosterols or plant sterols are belong to family of cholesterol molecules with structural similarity and are found in the cell membranes of plants, playing important roles like cholesterol in humans.
Campesterol, sitosterol and stigmasterol are reported most common phytosterols in the human diet. It has acted in the intestine to lower cholesterol absorption and it needs to present in healthy human diets with minimum risk of coronary heart disease Plant immunity has reported to involve the pathogen-associated molecular pattern PAMP -triggered immunity PTI and effector-triggered immunity ETI which is found to develop the non-host resistance in all members of a plant species due to potentially pathogenic microbes.
Pathogens have derived of nutrients from host plants with development of relationship between apoplastic nutrient levels and bacterial growth. A species of Arabidopsis plant Arabidopsis thaliana is reported as sterol methyltransferase 2 mutants and found to involve in sterol biosynthesis with resultant to plant innate immunity against bacterial pathogens.
Arabidopsis cytochrome P CYPA1 has capability to encode Csterol desaturase which can convert b-sitosterol to stigmasterol due to induced inoculation with nonhost pathogens An Arabidopsis Atcyp A1 with null mutant has developed both nonhost and basal resistance. Phytosterols are steroid compounds in most of plants with structural and functional similarity to cholesterol of human.
Phytosterols can lower the plasma total and LDL-cholesterol levels in human or animals via direct inhibition of cholesterol absorption through displacement of cholesterol from mixed micelles. Stanols in phytosterols are more efficient in lowering cholesterol levels than sterols unsaturated. Phytosterols have some substitutions at the C24 position on the sterol side chain Plasma phytosterol in mammalian tissues are low in concentration due to poor absorption from the intestine but faster excretion is reported from the liver.
Adverse effects of phytosterols are reported in few group of individuals with phytosterolemia an inherited lipid disorder with reduction in plasma levels of nutrients carotenoids. Phytosterols and their derivatives have promoted the health of man and animals via encouraging their consumption in the population 56 , Steroid compounds are widely marketed products of pharmaceutical industry.
The complexity of steroid molecules can be minimized by use of biocatalysts for high regio- and stereo-selectivity of the reactions The mild conditions are required for bioconversions which led to the development of high yield in biological production processes with environmentally friendly than their chemical synthesis as a major concern of industrialists. Prebiotic foods are reported as non-digestible foods in human digestive system onions, garlic, bananas, Jerusalem artichoke, chicory root, beans, and skin of apples, or others prebiotic fiber and it is mostly reported in small intestine and has capability to stimulate the favourable growth or enhanced the activities of indigenous probiotic bacteria.
And it reaches to large colon and it is feed by colonies of beneficial bacteria probiotic bacteria and helped in increasing desirable bacteria number in our digestive systems gut with association to better health and reduced disease risk Prebiotic therapies has been reported to cure gut related diseases constipation relief, suppression of diarrhoea, reduction of the risks of osteoporosis, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease associated with dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, obesity, and possibly type 2 diabetes and prebiotics are associated with sufficiently enriched with fibers needed for proper gut work Probiotics are reported as live and beneficial bacterial culture and their metabolites is naturally created by fermentation in foods and yogurt, sauerkraut, miso soup, kimchi, and others fermented foods are good examples.
Recent periods, it is also available in pill form and also added ingredient in products yogurt and health drinks. Kefir is found a milk drink with fermented using kefir grains as potent source of probiotics.
Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods: Natural Remedy
It contains lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in high numbers with diversity nature 50 different or more types of bacteria It has more consistency in drinking food with yoghurt and it is traveling into the digestive tract via colonizing the colon. Currently, consumption of functional foods or nutraceutical food in everyday diet as its parts has demonstrated to potential health benefits. Probiotics are most important and frequently used as functional food compound as it is healthy dairy products and been an excellent source of nutritious foods Such probiotic dairy foods has beneficially affect on the host by improving survival and implantation of live microbial dietary supplements in the gastrointestinal flora or by selectively stimulating the growth or activating the catabolism.
It contains one or a limited number of health-promoting bacteria in the intestinal tract, or by improving the gastrointestinal tract's microbial balance.
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Current scenario of probiotics and their prospective has shown many potential applications for functional foods for better health and nutrition of the society Probiotic strains of lactobacilli have been used in clinical practices due to their many health benefits. Probiotic strains of lactobacilli Lactobacillus species infections are rarely bacteremia or sepsis reported in two patients Probiotic lactobacilli has been subsequently developed and molecular DNA fingerprinting analysis has been performed for Lactobacillus strain isolated from blood samples of probiotic strain ingested patient.
Invasive disease can be associated with probiotic lactobacilli which should not discourage the appropriate use of Lactobacillus or other probiotic agents and it can cause invasive disease in certain populations These strains has used as commercial products and evaluated for safety, identity, gastrointestinal survival, and stability throughout shelf life These have shown antimicrobial activity against C.
Microbial Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals - Google Livros
Lifestyle of modern age people have faced many challenges, especially many health issues such obesity, osteoporosis, cancer diabetes, and several chronic gut problems. Problem in life could be developed due to consumption of manifold junk foods which has developed health problem and it is due to nutritional deficiencies in their food.
Due to developing of more awareness about food in people, has shifted their synthetic food ingredients to organic foods or ingredients from natural sources. And nutraceuticals food has played important role in controlling such diseases with provider of the health benefits to people. Dietary supplements as nutraceuticals food have helped in nutritional, immunologic and physiological functions with prevention or treatment of diseases of gastrointestinal GI tract.
Many herbals products with natural products has started to synthesize by many Indian or any other industries in world and more people are getting health benefits.
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Prebiotics, probiotics help in development of healthy microenvironment in human with treatment of chronic diseases , lycopene with potent antioxidant properties and plant sterol for lowering the blood cholesterol has been discussed with their health benefits. Author is main source for writing this manuscript. He has done only all the respective literature paper to writing this manuscript. There is no contribution of any fund or any honorarium money for this paper. But I am thankful to our university to encourage for paper writing.
Reviewer guidelines Register Reviewer Benefits Resources. Journal of Biotechnology and Biomedical Science. Current Issue. Volume No: 1 Issue No: 4. Rajesh K. Abstract Improved economic and developed people with their lifestyle have created many challenges of health issues obesity, osteoporosis, cancer, diabetes, allergies and dental problems , due to selection of different food habits such as consumption of manifold junk foods.
Checked for plagiarism: Yes Review by: Single-blind. Journal of Biotechnology and Biomedical Science - 1 4 DOI Introduction Stephen De Felice has coined the term nutraceutical for the food product or its functional components exhibiting nutrition and pharmaceutical properties both. Nutraceutical Nature of Food Products or Food Ingredients Functional foods are the products, possessing physiological benefits to people and its good source can be traditional foods.
Some nutraceutial sources from food products or its ingredient for reduction of cardiovascular disease with its possible risk factors 14 Sustainable health is also reported for healthy and active ageing without the risk of diseases. Table 1. Food sources with neutraceutical properties of different health benefits in many diseases in people Source of foods Parts used for Health benefits References 1- Allium sativum Garlic Fresh or dried cloves or garlic extracts is utilized by patients Arteriosclerosis, lowering of cholesterol in blood arteries is shown 24 2- Capsicum annum Red or Bell pepper Fresh and dried fruit powder is used by patient.
Natural antioxidant, stimulant, dietary antioxidants as health benefits is shown It prevents the blood clots in heart attacks problem 25 26 3-Zingiberofficinale , Ginger Fresh dried root is used by patient Help in Indigestionwithantioxidant property via having glutathione GSH activity and total superoxide dismutase SOD.
Phytosterol Synthesis Phytosterols or plant sterols are belong to family of cholesterol molecules with structural similarity and are found in the cell membranes of plants, playing important roles like cholesterol in humans. Prebiotics and Probiotics Food Synthesis Prebiotic foods are reported as non-digestible foods in human digestive system onions, garlic, bananas, Jerusalem artichoke, chicory root, beans, and skin of apples, or others prebiotic fiber and it is mostly reported in small intestine and has capability to stimulate the favourable growth or enhanced the activities of indigenous probiotic bacteria.
Conclusions Lifestyle of modern age people have faced many challenges, especially many health issues such obesity, osteoporosis, cancer diabetes, and several chronic gut problems. Acknowledgements Author is main source for writing this manuscript. References 1. Cencic A, Chingwaru W. Balsano C, Alisi A. Shahidi F. Search at Google Scholar. Cicero A F, Colletti A.
High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev. Bagchi D. Houston M. Hasle C M. Chandrasekara A, Shahidi F. Food Chem 58, The full text of this article hosted at iucr.